How to go about restoring a vm image:


Open a putty session to aaphst02:



Then login and do sudo su – to get root access:



Now mount one of the usbdrives:            


mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usbdrive1  




mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usbdrive2


then navigate to that directory:


[root@aaphst02 /]# cd /mnt/usbdrive2


*note: dmesg command after plugging in will show the sdxx of the drive; if it ever asks, the files system type is ext3. 


List the contents:


[root@aaphst02 usbdrive2]# ls -lah

total 92K

drwxr-xr-x 11 root root 4.0K Oct 30 04:12 .

drwxr-xr-x  7 root root 4.0K Nov  3 04:26 ..

drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4.0K Oct 30 04:03 aaphst01

drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4.0K Oct 30 04:12 aaphst02

drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4.0K Sep 18 04:50 apvwap01

drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4.0K Sep 30 15:58 databases

drwx------  2 root root  16K Aug 14 17:38 lost+found

drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4.0K Sep 21 20:50 lytec_backups

drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4.0K Sep  3 16:49 sc1420

drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4.0K Aug 31 14:11 server1

drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4.0K Oct 16 13:25 vmware_backups

[root@aaphst02 usbdrive2]#


Now, copy the image you want out of the aaphst02 directory into an appropriate folder in /images


if you need to make a directory to put it in, use this (be in the directory where you want the new one):


[root@aaphst02 images]# mkdir vmserver1bak


This is the copy command:


[root@aaphst02 backups]# cp vmserver1.sat.tar.gz /images/vmserver1bak

    *above backups is /mnt/usbdrivex/aaphst0x/backups


see for more info on cp


extract the tarball:


                   Using "tar" And "gzip" To Create and Extract Files From Archives

Please use tar/gz or zip (you can use Winzip) to create a single file to submit for your homework.

·        Creating a file "example.tar.gz":

·        "cd < your directory >"

·        "tar cvf example.tar *"

·        "gzip example.tar"

·        Submit the file "example.tar.gz"

·        If you do not want to include all the files in your homework directory (which is what "tar cvf example.tar *" means), instead list the specific files you want to include (e.g., "tar cvf example.tar prog1.c prog1.h README output.ppm").

·        Extracting files from the file "example.tar.gz":

·        "gunzip example.tar.gz"

·        "tar xvf example.tar"



[root@aaphst02 vmserver1bak]# tar -xvf vmserver1.sat.tar.gz



Now, add the VM to inventory:




Don't start the new instance without stopping the old.


[root@aaphst02 ~]# vmrun -h -u mwhalen -p secret start "[standard] apvwap01/apvwap01.vmx"


The “start” above can be stop, list (don't name the vm if you want the list), suspend or a few others. Lookup vmrun on google.


When you're done, unmount the drives:


umount /mnt/usbdrive1






find . -name '*mon.tar*' -print0 | xargs -0 rm

recursively deletes everything with mon.tar in its name


 df -h    shows current disk usage


fdisk -l shows partition info +


ifconfig is ipconfig



Command I used to copy the contents of sc1420/backups to aaphst02:

[root@aaphst02 backups]# rsync -avz /mnt/usbdrive1/sc1420/edrive/backups /mnt/vmserver1/backups

building file list ... done







































sent 6854970846 bytes  received 818 bytes  1868094.20 bytes/sec

total size is 37273356288  speedup is 5.44

[root@aaphst02 backups]#


RESTART WEB INTERFACE: /etc/init.d/vmware-mgmt restart


adding a new drive:


Whit out any theory:

1. Check what is the new hard disk device name with "fdisk -l", it shoul be something like /dev/sdb
2. Create a partition on it, supose the disk is /dev/sdb: "echo -ne "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk /dev/sdb1"
3. Make a filesystem on the partition: mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1
4. Create a directory where to mount the partition: mkdir /newdirectory
5. Edit fstab an add at the end of the file:
   /dev/sdb1  /newdirectory  ext3  defaults 0 0

6. now mount: mount -a

that is.



Mounting CIFS windows locations:

mount -t cifs // -o user=backupdude,password=secret /mnt/server1/edrive


        /sbin/shutdown -h now  (-h halt !wait for the halt mssg or risk data crrp!)

        /sbin/shutdown -r now  (-r = restart)



find / -name foo

This will search the whole system for any files named foo and display their pathnames.  Here we are using the criterion -name with the argument foo to tell find to perform a name search for the filename foo.  The output might look like this:




If find doesn't locate any matching files, it produces no output.

*(**** USE “” around search strings that contain wildcards

Vi search: / string (forward) ? String (back)



drive info:

fdisk -l


dmesg | tail

Run rsync manually:

rsync -ra /mnt/usbdrive1/ /mnt/usbdrive2/



vgscan shows vol groups

lvcreate creates logical volumes

see (

also (

also (




Formatting a new DISK:

How to Format a Hard Drive in Linux

mattlax Member

By MattLax, eHow Member

Article Rating: (311 Ratings)


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This article explains how to format a hard drive in Linux using the standard commands fdisk, mkfs and fsck. The procedure described can be used either to format a secondary hard drive or to format a drive prior to system installation.

Difficulty: Moderately Easy





      Step 1


      When you format a computer hard drive, you will lose everything that is on the drive. Therefore, it is very important to back up anything you might later want.


      Step 2


      To format a secondary drive, you will need root access. All commands used in this tutorial are run from a command line (terminal) as root. You may also want to make note of the size (total capacity in MB) of the drive.


      Step 3


      Linux refers to hard drives as either "hdx" or "sdx," where x is a letter, starting with a, which represents the order in which the drive was added to or detected by the computer. The "hd" prefix is used for IDE and PATA (formerly just ATA), and the "sd" prefix is used for SCSI, SATA and USB drives. Usually, a number is also put at the end of "hdx" or "sdx" to denote different partitions on the same physical drive, but for the purpose of formatting, you only need to know which letter the drive you want to format is.


      Step 4


      The examples given in this how-to are for a computer with two IDE hard drives attached as a master and slave. In this, the drives are "hda" and "hdb." You will need to determine the letter of the drive you want to format for your own setup. We will be formatting the drive hdb. For all examples, replace "hdb" with whatever your drive designation is.


      Step 5


      You can see all the drives attached to your system by typing the command "ls /dev/hd*" or "ls /dev/sd*", depending on which type (IDE, SATA and so forth) the drives are. On the example system, the result of this command looks like "/dev/hda /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hdb /dev/hdb1". The operating system is installed on hda, which has two partitions (hda1 and hda2), and there is one partition on hdb and hdb1.

      Using fdisk


      Step 1


      First, you will use the fdisk command to erase any old partitions on the drive and create a new one. Any changes you make using fdisk are only made permanent if you then issue the "w" command before quitting, so feel free to play around a little if you like. If at any time you find yourself stuck, you can quit the program without saving changes by holding the "Ctrl" key and pressing "c."


      Step 2


      At the command prompt, type "fdisk /dev/hdb", replacing the "hdb" with the letters for your drive. Upon opening, fdisk may give you a couple of warnings, all of which can be ignored. It then gives you a prompt that looks like this: Command (m for help):


      Step 3


      Enter "p" to see the partition table of the drive. The first line of output from the "p" command will also tell you the size of the drive. This is a good way to double-check that you are working with the correct drive.


      Step 4


      If there are any partitions already on the drive, they will be listed as the last lines of the "p" command. On our example, this looks like "/dev/hdb1", followed by some information about the partition's size and filesystem.


      Step 5


      To delete any existing partitions, press "d" and then "Enter." It will ask you which partition number you wish to delete. The number of the partition is the number that follows hdb, so on our example system, we enter 1. If there are multiple partitions, repeat the "d" command for each one. You can always view the partition table again with the "p" command.


      Step 6


      Once you have deleted all existing partitions on the drive, you are ready to make a new one. Type "n" and hit "Enter." Then press "p" to create a primary partition. It asks you for a partition number; enter "1." Now you are asked which cylinder the partition should start at. The beginning of the drive is the default, so just hit "Enter." Then, you are asked for the last cylinder. The end of the drive is the default, so you can just press "Enter" again.


      Step 7


      Now you are back at fdisk's command prompt. Use the "p" command to check the partition table. You should now see your new partition at the bottom of the output. In the example, it lists as "/dev/hdb1."


      Step 8


      You now need to set the filesystem type for your new partition with the "t" command. You are asked for the Hex code of the filesystem you wish to use. We will use the standard Linux ext2 filesystem, which is "83." If you are doing something special and know of a particular filesystem that you need to use, you can press "L" to see all the codes, which are one or two characters made up of the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters a to f.


      Step 9


      Now just issue the "w" command to write your new partition table and exit fdisk.

      Creating the New Filesystem With mkfs


      Step 1


      Now you need to create the filesystem on the drive. This is done with the "mkfs" command.


      Step 2


      At the command prompt, enter "mkfs -t ext2 /dev/hdb1", while remembering to change the hdb1 to whatever the letters are for the partition you just created.


      Step 3


      If you are using a different filesystem than ext2, you will have to specify that where "ext2" is in the above command.

      Finalizing the Format With fsck


      Step 1


      All that is left is to run a check on the drive and enter it into your fstab so that the drive mounts each time you start your computer. This can be done with a single fsck command.


      Step 2


      At the command prompt, type "fsck -f -y /dev/hdb1", again replacing hdb1 with the letters and number for your partition.


      Step 3


      After fsck runs, your new drive is formatted. Restart your system before using it.


      Step 4


      If you reformatted your system drive, you will now need to boot off an installation disk to install an operating system.